人为主导的生态系统中人畜共患宿主多样性增加

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人为主导的生态系统中人畜共患宿主多样性增加

2020-08-06 20:26

本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

英国伦敦大学学院教授Kate E. Jones及其研究团队取得最新进展。他们表明人为主导的生态系统中人畜共患宿主多样性增加。2020年8月5日,《自然》杂志发表了这项成果。

他们分析了全球6,801个生态群落和376个寄主物种,以控制研究工作,并显示土地利用对当地人畜共患寄主群落具有总体性和系统性影响。在人类大量占用的土地(次级、农业和城市生态系统)中,与附近不受干扰的栖息地相比,已知的人类共有病原体和寄生虫的野生动植物宿主,总体上占当地物种丰富度的比例(高18-72%)和总丰度(高21-144%)更高。这种影响的大小在分类学上有所不同,并且对于啮齿动物、蝙蝠和雀形目鸟的人畜共患宿主物种而言最强,这可能是支撑这些生物分类作为人畜共患动物的总体重要性的一个因素。

他们进一步表明,总体上带有更多病原体(人类共有或非人类共有)的哺乳动物物种更可能发生在人类管理的生态系统中,这表明这些趋势可能是由影响生态系统或生命历史特征的宿主状态和对人为干扰的耐受力。他们的结果表明,土地使用方式和强度的全球变化正在导致人畜共患病的人、牲畜和野生动植物之间的危险界面不断扩大。

研究人员表示,土地利用的变化(例如:自然栖息地向农业或城市生态系统的转化)被广泛认为会影响人畜共患疾病的风险和出现。但是,尚不清楚这种风险变化是否受到可预测的生态变化的支持。有人提出,由于物种对人类压力的抵御力的系统性、特质介导性差异,栖息地扰动可能导致潜在的储源宿主的局部多样性和生物分类组成发生可预测的变化。

附:英文原文

Title: Zoonotic host diversity increases in human-dominated ecosystems

Author: Rory Gibb, David W. Redding, Kai Qing Chin, Christl A. Donnelly, Tim M. Blackburn, Tim Newbold, Kate E. Jones

Issue&Volume: 2020-08-05

Abstract: Land use change—for example, the conversion of natural habitats to agricultural or urban ecosystems—is widely recognized to influence the risk and emergence of zoonotic disease in humans1,2. However, whether such changes in risk are underpinned by predictable ecological changes remains unclear. It has been suggested that habitat disturbance might cause predictable changes in the local diversity and taxonomic composition of potential reservoir hosts, owing to systematic, trait-mediated differences in species resilience to human pressures3,4. Here we analyse 6,801 ecological assemblages and 376 host species worldwide, controlling for research effort, and show that land use has global and systematic effects on local zoonotic host communities. Known wildlife hosts of human-shared pathogens and parasites overall comprise a greater proportion of local species richness (18–72% higher) and total abundance (21–144% higher) in sites under substantial human use (secondary, agricultural and urban ecosystems) compared with nearby undisturbed habitats. The magnitude of this effect varies taxonomically and is strongest for rodent, bat and passerine bird zoonotic host species, which may be one factor that underpins the global importance of these taxa as zoonotic reservoirs. We further show that mammal species that harbour more pathogens overall (either human-shared or non-human-shared) are more likely to occur in human-managed ecosystems, suggesting that these trends may be mediated by ecological or life-history traits that influence both host status and tolerance to human disturbance5,6. Our results suggest that global changes in the mode and the intensity of land use are creating expanding hazardous interfaces between people, livestock and wildlife reservoirs of zoonotic disease.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2562-8

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2562-8

期刊信息

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
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